Fundamentals of Mechanical Behavior of Metals
Following are some important tips that you should consider while understanding the fundamentals of Mechanical behavior of Metals:
1. Mechanical Properties measured with the help of Tension tests include modulus of elasticity (E), yield stress (Y), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and Poisson’s ratio (v). True stress-strain curves are important in determining properties such as strength coefficient (K), strain hardening coefficient (n), strain rate sensitivity exponent (m) and toughness.
2. Compression tests simulate processes like forging, rolling and extrusion. Properties measured by compression test are subject to inaccuracies due to presence of friction and barreling.
3. Bend or flexure tests are performed on brittle materials; the outer fiber stress at fracture in bending is called Modulus of Rupture or transverse rupture strength. The forces applied in bend tests are simulated for processes like, forming of sheet and plate, as well as testing of materials for tool and die.
4. Hardness is related to strength and wears resistance, but it is not a fundamental property of the material.
5. Creep refers to the permanent elongation of a component under a static load maintained for a given period of time. In this a constant tensile load at a given temperature is applied for a certain time, till the material fails by necking and rupture.
6. Residual stresses are those which remain in a part after it has been deformed and all external forces have been removed. The nature and level of these stresses depend upon the way in which the material is plastically deformed. These are removed by heat treatment processes like, annealing.
7. In metal working operations, the job piece material is subject to tri-axial stress, via different tools and dies. Yield criteria provide relationship between uniaxial yield stress for material and stress applied. The two most commonly criterion are; Tresca’s and Von Mises’.
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